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Phil 105: Practical Reasoning — Fall 2019

Study Guide for Exam 1

Key terms

antecedent
argument / non-argument
argument stopper
Bayes’ theorem
cogent / uncogent
conclusion
conclusion indicator
conditional statement
conjoint premises
connecting premise
consequent
counterexample
covering generalization
deductive argument
explanation
extended argument
factually correct / incorrect
hard / soft generalization
illustration
implicit conclusion
implicit premise
independent premises
inductive argument
inference
logic
logical form
premise
premise indicator
principle of charity
reasoning
sound / unsound
statement
strong / weak
truth value
valid / invalid

Exam one will be held in class, Thursday, October 3, 2019.

About 60% of the exam will be multiple choice. The rest will be short-answer.

You should be prepared to do all of the following:

  1. Define the terms listed as “key terms”.
  2. More importantly, employ these terms accurately: i.e., be able to distinguish when and where they are appropriately used from when and where not, and recognize examples. (This includes being able to distinguish arguments from non-arguments, inductive from deductive arguments, premises from conclusions, and so on.)
  3. Provide and recognize counterexamples to simple invalid deductive forms.
  4. Recognize and identify implicit premises and conclusions in arguments.
  5. Construct argument “maps” (Scriven diagrams) for stated arguments, and identify correctly or incorrectly drawn maps.
  6. Reconstruct arguments by streamlining and clarifying their logical form, adding implicit or connecting premises where needed, reducing unnecessary rhetoric and extraneous content, making the language consistent, unambiguous and precise, etc., and writing them (and their subarguments) in standard form, while employing the principle of charity.
  7. Distinguish what is from what is not relevant when evaluating deductive validity and/or inductive strength.


© 2024 Kevin C. Klement